1) 先后次序关系：at this time; first; second; at last; next；previously; simultaneously; eventually；last but not least；to begin with；to start with；to end with；finally；seeing...；since then；first of all；afterwards; following this; preceding this.
2) 因果关系：because；because of this；being that；another important factor／reason of... ； since； as； for； in that...； owing to； due to； for the reason that...； in view of； the reason seems to be obvious; there are about... ；for this reason; as a result of this； therefore；...and so...； consequently；as a result； thus； hence； so；so that...； in consequence； as a consequence； accordingly; inevitably; under these conditions; thereupon.
3) 转折关系：but；even so；however；though；even though；independent of；reckless of ；despite that； in spite of that； regardless of; yet...；and yet； but unless.
4) 并列关系： and; also；too；as well as；either...，or...；both...and...
5) (补充)递进关系： furthermore；moreover；further；In this way ；still； not only...but also...； not...but...； in addition (to)；additionally, much more interesting, more specifically, next, besides； as far as... is concerned; moreover；in other words；along this line of consideration；on the one hand...，on the other hand...； even； as a poplar saying goes...；in order to do it...; meanwhile； at the same time； accordingly； In the first place...，in the second place...;equally important; of even greater appeal.
6) 比较关系： similarly; in like manner, in comparison with；when compared with；compared with；when in fact...; like...； likewise； similarly important； apart from (doing)...； ... rather than...，by doing so ；both…and...; in the same way; not only...but (also).
7) 对照(不同点)：yet; still; for all of that; notwithstanding; rather; neither ... nor; although; though; but; however; something is just the other way around；yet; conversely； unlike； opposed to; as opposed to ； in contrast (to)； by way of；on the contrary；different from this；as opposed to this； nevertheless; contrary to； whereas； while；but on the other hand.
8) 举例关系:for example； for instance； in this case; namely； as you know； you may as／say； as he explains； like； such as； a case in point is...; consider...； in particular；including...；for one thing...，for another...；put it simply；stated roughly； as an illustration， I will say...； a good example (of...)would be...；to detail this，I would like to...； It is interesting to note that...；in this situation; as proof; take the case of; take as example (something)； as for; as regards； as to； according to; on this occasion.
9) 强调关系：in fact; especially；particularly；moreover；naturally; what is more important； in reality； certainly; of course; indeed; in particular；not to mention...；believe it or not；undeniably; other thing being equal；it is certain／sure that...；to be strict; to be true；by definition; definitely; undoubtedly; without a doubt; in truth, in any event(不论怎样); without reservation(毫无保留地); obviously, not only.. but(also...), both... and...
10) 条件关系: if；unless; lest；provided that；if it is the case；in this sense；once...；if possible；if necessary；if so；if not all; if anything.
11) 归纳总结类： in other words；on the whole; in sum; therefore；hence；in short；in brief；to sum up；in conclusion; in summary； to conclude； the conclusion can be drawn that...; for this reason; in short.
12) 地点关系：beyond; opposite to; adjacent to; at the same place; there; over; in the middle; around; in front of; in the distance; farther; here and there; above; below; at the right; between; on this side.
13) 目的关系：with this object; for this purpose; in order that; in this way, since; so that; on that account; in case; with a view to; for the same reason.
14) 重申关系：in other words; that is to say; as I have said; again; once again.
15) 结果关系：accordingly; thus; consequently; hence; therefore; thereupon; inevitably; under these conditions; as a result; as a consequence; because; because of; so that; not only...but (also...); so... as to.
16) 顺序关系：first; second; thirdly; next; then; at the outset(在开始时)，following this; at this time; now; at this point; after; afterward; after this; subsequently; lastly; finally; consequently; before this; previously; preceding this; simultaneously; concurrently(同时).
17) 时间关系：at once; immediately; at length; in the mean time; meanwhile; at the same time; in the end; then; soon; not long after; later; at once; at last; finally; some time ago; at present; all of a sudden; from this time on; from time to time; since then; when; whenever; next point; a few minutes later; formerly; as; once; since; occasionally; in a moment; shortly; whereupon; previously
英语关联词 —并列连词 1 并列连词 在句子中不做成分,仅表示前后关系. 1.用于连接彼此互补依存的对等的成分. 1)连接语词:slow but safe/ either this week or next week 2)连接分句:I went and she also. 2.可分别表示下列关系. 1)转折:but, yet, however, neverthe- less 2) 因果:so, for, therefore 3) 选择:or, either…or, neither…nor 英语关联词 —并列连接词 2 4)并列和递进:and,both…and, as well as not only…but (also) 英语关联词 —关联词 关联词 用于引导从句. 1.名词从句: He doesn't know what she is. 2.副词从句:If he comes, I'll give it to you. 3.形容词从句:He's the best student I've ever taught. 英语关联词 —连接词 1 关联词的类别及所表示的关系 要特别注意关联词在从句中(及某些连接词在短语中)所担当的成分,这是正确使用关连词的关键. 1.连接词:引导名词从句,在从句中不做成分. 1) that(无含义): I said that he was wrong. 2) whether(if)(表示不确定性或选择关系): I don't know whether it is correct. 英语关联词 —连接词 2 2.连接代词 1)引导名词从句,在从句中做主语,宾语,表语和 定语. A. who/which 作主语(口语who中可做宾语, 但其前面不可有与其配合使用的介词): I asked him who came into the room./ I asked him who(m) he saw whom/which 做宾语: Ask him which he wants. 英语关联词 —关联词 3 C. whose 做宾语(=whose thing(s)) /定 语: I wonder whose house that is. D. what 做上面提及的各种成分: I don't know what I should do. What can be done 2)与不定式连用,在其中多做主语和宾语. We can't decide whom to invite. We must decide what to do. I couldn't decide which to choose. 英语关联词 —关联词 4 3.连接副词 引导名词从句或与不定式连用,在从句 中做状语. 1) how: That's how I look at it. 2) where: I don't know where he lives. 3) when: Tell me when to use the tool. 4) why: I'll tell you why you have to do it. 英语关联词 —关系词 1 4.关系代词 1) who 表示人,在从句中做主语和表语(口语 who中可做宾语,但其前面不可有与其配合使用 的介词): The man who spoke is my teacher. I don't know who he is. The man who I saw told me that. 2) whom 表示人,在从句中做宾语和表语: The man whom I saw told me that. 英语关联词 —关系词 2 3) whose 表示"某人/物的",of which表示 "某物的", 在从句中做定语: That's the man whose son is my pupil. The room whose window faces south is her bedroom. The room of which the window faces south is her bedroom. 英语关联词 —关系词 3 4) which 表示物,在从句中做主语和表语: I like the picture which was taken in front of the main building. 5) that 表示人/物,在从句中做主语和宾语; 注 意下列关于that作为关系代词的用法. A.现行词前有最高级形容词修饰时: This is the best film that I've ever seen. 英语关联词 —关系词 4 B.先行词是下列词语或为其所修饰修饰时: the first, the last, the only, the same, the very, all, any, no, every. This is the last chance that you have. You are the only friend that I have. He told me all that he knew. 英语关联词 —关系词 5 C. 先行词是下列不定代词或为其所修饰修饰时: much, little, none, everything/body, nothing, nobody. There's nothing in the world that can frighten him. D. 以Who/Which开始的句子,其后的定语从句中 的关系代词不使用who/which,而代之以that. Who that knows him would trust him Which of these buses is the one that goes to London 英语关联词 —关系词 6 E.人和事物/动物同为先行词时: The man and the horse that fell into the river were drowned. 6) 关系代词做介词宾语. A.一般介词可放在whom/which的前面或其所 在的从句的句尾,关系代词为that时,只可 放在其所在的从句的句尾. Is this the car for which you paid a high price 英语关联词 —关系词 7 Is this the car which you paid a high price for Is this the car that you paid a high price for Is this the car you paid a high price for B.介词during, except以及表示(从整体中) "分割"(出部分)的介词of等介词要放在关 系代词的前面: 英语关联词 —关系词 8 The years during which he was away were long years to her. He wrote many books, some of which C.其介词与动词不可分割的短语动词中的介词必 须放在其动词之后,不可放在关系代词之前: This is the book which he has been looking for. 7)关系代词的省略. A.关系代词作宾语时: The girl I work with is coming. 英语关联词 —关系词 9 B.that在定语从句中做表语时: He is not the man that he was when I saw him first. He is not the man he was when I saw him first. 5.关系副词 在定语从句中均做状语. 1)where 地点: That's one point where I'd like your advice. 英语关联词 —关系词 10 2) when 时间: At the time when I saw him, he was ill. 3) why 原因: That is the reason why I came so early. 4) that 方式/时间/原因 I like the way that /in which he did it. 英语关联词 —关系词 11 That was the first time (that) I saw him. The reason why/that he was dismissed is not easy to explain. 5)in which/at which = where This is the school in which/at which/ where he works. 6)for which = why I don't the reason for which he left. 英语关联词 —关系词 12 7)on which = when The day on which she was born was 22 September, 1988. 英语介词和关联词 —试题与思路 1.The doctor will be free ___. A.in ten minutes B.10 minutes later C.after 10 minutes D.10 minutes after 选A.in和将来时连用表示的是某段时间的终结点.after表示某个时间点之后的任一时间.later强调的是在某个时间点之后. 2.___ all the students, whom do you regard most highly A.Of B.About C.From D.In 选A.由most highly可知句首的短语是表示比较范围的状语.当给出所比较的人,事物所在的范围时,用in;给出所比较的人,事物的名称时用of. 英语介词和关联词 —试题与思路 3.He was praised ___ his sense of duty. A.about B.by C.for D.of 选C.句子要表达的是受表扬的原因,所以选for. 4.The key ___ success is hard work. A.on B.to C.in D.for 选B.表示"进入,达到,对于"等含义的名词,需要和to连用. 5.Alice has a large collection of photos, ___ was taken in London. A.none of them B.no one of which C.all of which D.none of which 英语介词和关联词 —试题与思路 选D.逗号后是一个定语从句,要有关系词来引导,可知A不可;从从句的单数动词was可知C不可;从no one 是表示人而且不可同of短语连用,可知其不可. 6.You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is___ I disagree. A.why B.where C.what D.how 选B.由disagree是不及物动词可知应选一连接副词来表达"在某处/某方面"之意,所以选B. 7.Mary can't be admitted to a universi-ty next fall __ she can afford her further education. 英语介词和关联词 —试题与思路 A.unless B.for C.as D.if 选A.从句意可知是有关条件的话题,所以表示原因的as和for均应排除;又由于主句是否定句,根据要标达的意思,应选否定条件连词unless. 8.__ encourages us greatly is ___ China has achieved great success in the Olympic Games. A.What; what B.That; that C.What; that D.That; what 选C.两个clause均为名词从句.第一个是主语从句,其中缺少主语,所以选连接代词what;第二个不缺少成分,所以用纯连词that引导.
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